More details

This part of the website is to provide you with more detailed information about the research.

Please download the Participant Information Sheet here.

If you are interested to download the Ethics Committee Approval Letter, you can here.

Data Collection is Now Closed

Please note that the opportunity to participate in this research is now closed. The project is currently in the Data Analysis phase.

Eligibility to Participate

If you are 18 years+ in age and have a minimum of two years coaching or related experience in basketball, field hockey, ice hockey, rugby union, football (soccer), or volleyball, you are invited to participate in this research study.

Participation in the following research study is completely voluntary and at any stage a participant may withdraw without explanation, and it will not negatively affect them in any way.


The purpose of this research study is ultimately to be a useful and relevant reference for coaches. It draws on the coaches’ experiences, opinions, and expectations, to evaluate what they want in key playmaker positions for their sport. While focused on basketball, field hockey, ice hockey, rugby union, football (soccer), and volleyball, the principles and benefits of this research can be extended to other sports.

The science and research around physical and technical aspects of sport is well documented, however the understanding and application of behavioral styles is only in its infancy. This research is pursuing an area not previously investigated around key playmaker positions and specifically what coaches want from a behavioral perspective of the players in these positions. The application of this research can be used in coach education, game strategy, player selection, and development programs.

Research Design and Testing Duration

If you agree to participate in this study, you will be asked to complete two stages of data collection.    

Stage 1 takes approximately 10 to 25 minutes to complete and includes an initial coach questionnaire, and a CoachDISC Profile survey. The initial questionnaire asks about your coaching and playing history, your opinions about player positions and captains, and general information about you. The CoachDISC Profile survey has 30 questions which ask you to choose words that are most like and least like your behaviour as a coach.

Stage 2 asks you to consider the playmaker position you identified in Stage 1 and answer an AthleteDISC Profile survey based on how you would want the ideal player in this position to answer (i.e., answer this survey as if you are the ideal player you would want in this playmaker position). The AthleteDISC Profile survey is similar in design to the CoachDISC Profile completed earlier. This stage is anticipated to take between 10 and 20 minutes in total.

The questionnaire and surveys are completed online and require a computer or electronic device, and a reliable internet connection.

Ethics Committee Approval

Human research ethics approval for this research project has been granted from 28 April 2022 to 28 April 2025. The ethics approval number is S211664.

Risks Associated with Participation

The risks associated with participating in this study are no more than you would anticipate in sitting in a usual coaching environment or office and completing surveys online on a computer or electronic device. The participant will be asked about their coaching and playing history, their opinions, and reflections regarding topics such as player positions, selection, leadership and captaincy, and other related topics. It is not anticipated that these considerations will bring up negative emotions or experiences.

Please be aware that you can take a break between questions, or withdraw from the research project at your complete free will.

Declaration of Duality of Interest

A duality of interest does exist within this research as the lead researcher is also employed by and a shareholder in the company that owns the CoachDISC Profile and AthleteDISC Profile assessments being used as part of this study. The lead researcher is acutely aware of the professionalism required to separate these two roles and will actively work to ensure the research or professional relationships are in no way affected. If you have any questions regarding this, please contact the lead researcher, one of the supervisors, or the USC Research Ethics Office.


After all data collection and analysis have been completed, you will receive a summary of the key findings and recommendations from the research project, if you nominated your interest and provided your contact details. You will also have the option to receive a copy and discuss your own individual results in a private environment with the lead researcher. You will also be informed of any sport science journal publications that are connected with this research.


After reading this Participant Information Sheet and having any further questions you may have answered by the lead researcher, you will be given a consent form to sign before you can participate in this study. Alternatively, if you are completing the questionnaire and surveys online, you will be asked to confirm your consent by clicking on the field “Yes, I consent”. You are only eligible to participate if you are over 18 years of age and have a minimum of two years coaching or related experience. Please remember that participation in this research is completely voluntary and at any stage you may withdraw without explanation. During the study, the signed consent forms, or electronic equivalent printed in hard copy, will be stored in a locked cabinet in the lead researcher’s office, and after the completion of the project, they will be stored in the same way with the primary supervisor for a total of five years.


All data gathered throughout this study will be coded so that no participants will be personally identifiable by a third party. Apart from the lead researcher, no one else will be able to identify you from any of the collected data. All data collected throughout the course of this study will be kept in a locked file in the private office of the lead researcher or on a password-protected computer. At the completion of this study, data will be completely de-identified and stored for potential future use (i.e., it will not be possible to find out which data belongs to any specific participant).

Research Results

You may nominate to receive a copy of the results of this research. The option is provided within your Consent Form as well as within the research survey.


If you have any complaints about the way this research project is being conducted, you can raise them with the lead researcher or, if you prefer an independent person, please contact one of the Research Ethics Officers in the Office of Research at the University of the Sunshine Coast (Research Ethics Officer, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore DC 4558; telephone (07) 5459 4574; email

Ms. Elizabeth Masen (PhD Candidate, Lead Researcher)
telephone +61 (0)412 424 727
Dr. Mark Sayers (Primary Supervisor)  |  Associate Professor, University of the Sunshine Coast
telephone +61 (0)7 5459 4703
Dr. Anthony Bedford (Co-Supervisor)  |  Associate Professor, University of the Sunshine Coast
Dr. Adam Gorman
(Co-Supervisor)  |  Queensland University of Technology telephone +61 (0)7 3138 3524